Sticker Price: This is also known as the manufacturer's suggested retail price or MSRP. It's basically the price that the dealer would like you to pay for the car.
Invoice Price: This is roughly what the dealer paid the carmaker for the vehicle. The "roughly" aspect will be discussed later.
True Market Value: TMV is the market average of what others are paying for the same car in your area. Since it is an average, some will pay more than this number and others will pay less. In general, the TMV price will lie somewhere in between sticker and invoice price. If the vehicle is being heavily discounted, it is not uncommon for TMV to fall below the invoice price. Similarly, if the vehicle is in high demand and not being discounted, the TMV price can also be the same as the sticker price. In addition to TMV, Edmunds has a program with another pricing term you should know: Edmunds Special Offers. These lease or purchase offers give car shoppers a guaranteed upfront price on a specific car.
All About Sticker, Invoice and TMV
Let's look a little deeper at these car pricing terms and when to use them when you're negotiating a new car's price.
Sticker Price: This figure is the most visible number on the car's window sticker. It is also the price cited in many newspaper and TV car advertisements. As mentioned, dealers would like you to pay this price for the car. And they often try to start negotiations at sticker price. In fact, when you are on the car lot, the salesperson will direct all your attention to this official-looking number that's prominently displayed on this official-looking document. The number has a certain authority that's designed to influence buyers.
Invoice Price: Manufacturers ship cars with invoices, which are the bills from the manufacturer to the dealer for each vehicle. Since the dealer will have to pay that amount for the car, anything over that will be the dealer's profit.
Depending on the popularity of the car, you can sometimes buy a car at the invoice price. Occasionally, you can pay below invoice for a car if there are incentives such as customer cash rebates or dealer cash. Dealer cash is unadvertised money the manufacturer pays the dealership to help it sell cars.
The invoice is actually a difficult form for consumers to read since it is filled with numbers and abbreviated terms that only automotive insiders understand. But it does have valuable information since it lists not only what the dealer paid but also additional fees the dealer might have paid, such as for advertising and other regional costs. In recent years, dealers have become more open to showing customers the invoice. It's best to ask politely to see the invoice rather than demanding it as if it is your right.
Here's why the invoice price is only "roughly" what the dealer paid for the car. It's because of the holdback amount that most manufacturers assign to a car. The holdback is a percentage of the sticker price or invoice price. Manufacturers pay it to the dealer after he sells a car. This means that a dealer could sell a car at invoice price, tell the customer that he's not making one penny on the deal and still get a check from the manufacturer a month later for $500.
True Market Value Price: Edmunds created the TMV price to be the one car-buying number you really need to know. Edmunds analysts look at the market, examine what other cars have sold for, consider the popularity of the car within your region, and set the TMV price. It is the average amount that other buyers in your area are paying for the car. Usually, TMV is less than sticker price but more than invoice price. Because it's an average, some people will pay much less than TMV and others will pay more. But by looking at TMV, you can get a rough idea how popular the car is and what you should expect to pay for it.
Kelley Blue Book Price: There's one last term car buyers often hear and that's the Kelley Blue Book price or, more simply, a car's "blue book value." It's important to understand that these two terms mainly apply to used-car shopping. Kelley lists its own used-car values, using its own method. Often, Kelley's prices differ from Edmunds' TMV prices. Dealerships will use Kelley prices when making offers on cars people want to trade in or when they're listing used cars for sale on their lots.
How Pricing Terms Affect Negotiating
The dealer would like you to negotiate using the sticker price as the starting point. The higher the dealer starts negotiations, the more room he has to reduce the price and still make a good profit. You, on the other hand, should consider making the invoice price your starting point and work up from there. Keep your eye on TMV as the point where you want to wind up. Be ready to pay TMV — but try to pay less.
The market is always changing and prices fluctuate rapidly. Therefore, it's important to shop around for the best deal. The three car pricing terms here will guide you as you get quotes and consider various offers. As you shop, you will become an expert on car pricing in your area during the period of time you're shopping for your car. And when you know the numbers behind the deal, it will make you a better negotiator.