Women represent about 51 percent of the population in the United States, but having a slight majority in the population did not make it any easier for them to be considered in crash testing. Up until recently, only average-sized adult male dummies were used in crash testing, which meant that effects of auto crashes on women, particularly petite women, were not studied. But as automobiles and the safety systems in them became more advanced, the size of the occupants suddenly became more important and researchers saw the need for dummies of other sizes. Since 2000, both the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), have used female dummies in various crash tests, yet each group takes a very different approach to its use of the female dummy in crash testing. We talked with both organizations, which are the two groups that conduct crash testing in the United States, to learn about their approaches, why they are different and what it means to today's female drivers.