1. Stop driving if you feel sleepy. Stop and drink a caffeinated beverage.
2. Since it takes about 30 minutes for caffeine to enter the bloodstream and take effect, use that time to take a nap.
3. Get plenty of sleep the night before taking a long trip. Get at least six hours, though more is better.
4. Don't plan to work all day and then drive all night.
5. Drive at times when you are normally awake and stay overnight in a hotel or motel rather than driving straight through.
6. Avoid driving at so-called sleepy times of day. Take a midafternoon break for a short nap and find a place to sleep between midnight and dawn. If you can't nap, at least stop your drive and rest for awhile.
7. Avoid carbohydrate-laden foods that can make you sleepy. Eat some protein instead.
8. Avoid allergy and cold or flu medications containing diphenhydramine, such as Benadryl, which can contribute to drowsiness. And don't take prescribed sleep aids such as Ambien until you are finished driving for the day.
9. On long trips, keep a passenger who's awake in the front seat. Increasing the volume on the car stereo is not a substitute for somebody you can talk to.
10. Take a break every two hours or every 100-120 miles, even if you don't need a pit stop or gas. Get out of the car, take some deep breaths and do some stretching exercises, especially for the neck and shoulders, to relieve cramping and stress. And try to set a limit of 300-400 miles of driving per day.