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Edmunds Tested: Electric Car Range and Consumption

Edmunds Tested: Electric Car Range and Consumption

Real World vs. EPA

Latest Highlights

  • The F-150 Lighting Lariat is the farthest-traveling Ford we've tested to date
  • The Lightning Lariat breaks into the top 5, tying the Tesla Model 3 Long Range and Model S Plaid at 345 miles
  • There are 18 EVs in Edmunds' 300-mile club
  • Every Tesla we've tested has failed to hit its EPA range estimate (read our follow-up test here)

What's On This Page?

  1. The Leaderboard: Best Real-World EV Range
  2. The Chart: Edmunds' EV Testing Data vs. EPA Estimates

EV Range Leaderboard

EPA estimate
Edmunds tested
#1 2022 Lucid Air Dream Range

2022 Lucid Air Dream Range

520 mi
505 mi
#2 2022 Mercedes-Benz EQS 450+

2022 Mercedes-Benz EQS 450+

350 mi
422 mi
#3 2022 Mercedes-Benz EQS 580

2022 Mercedes-Benz EQS 580

340 mi
381 mi
#4 2022 BMW iX xDrive50

2022 BMW iX xDrive50

315 mi
377 mi
#5 2022 Ford F-150 Lightning Lariat

2022 Ford F-150 Lightning Lariat

320 mi
345 mi
#5 2021 Tesla Model 3 Long Range

2021 Tesla Model 3 Long Range

353 mi
345 mi
#5 2021 Tesla Model S Plaid

2021 Tesla Model S Plaid

348 mi
345 mi
#8 2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E California Route 1

2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E California Route 1

305 mi
344 mi
#9 2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E Premium Ext Range RWD

2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E Premium Ext Range RWD

300 mi
341 mi
#9 2022 Ford F-150 Lightning Platinum Extended Range

2022 Ford F-150 Lightning Platinum Extended Range

300 mi
341 mi
#11 2022 Mercedes-Benz AMG EQS 53 4Matic

2022 Mercedes-Benz AMG EQS 53 4Matic

277 mi
332 mi
#12 2020 Porsche Taycan 4S

2020 Porsche Taycan 4S

203 mi
323 mi
#12 2022 Kia EV6 Wind RWD

2022 Kia EV6 Wind RWD

310 mi
323 mi
#14 2020 Tesla Model S Performance

2020 Tesla Model S Performance

326 mi
318 mi
#15 2021 Tesla Model Y Long Range

2021 Tesla Model Y Long Range

326 mi
317 mi
#15 2022 Rivian R1T Launch Edition

2022 Rivian R1T Launch Edition

314 mi
317 mi
#17 2022 Hyundai Kona Electric

2022 Hyundai Kona Electric

258 mi
308 mi
#18 2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E AWD Ext Range

2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E AWD Ext Range

270 mi
304 mi
#19 2020 Tesla Model X Long Range

2020 Tesla Model X Long Range

328 mi
294 mi
#20 2022 Polestar 2 Long Range Single Motor

2022 Polestar 2 Long Range Single Motor

270 mi
289 mi
#21 2022 Polestar 2 Long Range Dual Motor

2022 Polestar 2 Long Range Dual Motor

249 mi
288 mi
#21 2021 Volkswagen ID.4 Pro

2021 Volkswagen ID.4 Pro

260 mi
288 mi
#23 2021 Volkswagen ID.4 First Edition

2021 Volkswagen ID.4 First Edition

250 mi
287 mi
#24 2022 Porsche Taycan (20-in wheels)

2022 Porsche Taycan (20-in wheels)

225 mi
286 mi
#25 2020 Kia Niro EV

2020 Kia Niro EV

239 mi
285 mi
#25 2022 Audi RS e-tron GT

2022 Audi RS e-tron GT

232 mi
285 mi
#27 2022 Kia EV6 GT-Line dual motor

2022 Kia EV6 GT-Line dual motor

274 mi
283 mi
#28 2022 Chevrolet Bolt

2022 Chevrolet Bolt

259 mi
278 mi
#29 2023 Genesis GV60 Performance

2023 Genesis GV60 Performance

235 mi
274 mi
#30 2022 Audi e-tron GT

2022 Audi e-tron GT

238 mi
273 mi
#31 2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E GT Performance

2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E GT Performance

260 mi
272 mi
#31 2021 Volkswagen ID.4 Pro S dual motor

2021 Volkswagen ID.4 Pro S dual motor

240 mi
272 mi
#33 2022 Hyundai Ioniq 5 Limited dual motor

2022 Hyundai Ioniq 5 Limited dual motor

256 mi
270 mi
#34 2022 BMW i4 M50

2022 BMW i4 M50

227 mi
268 mi
#35 2022 Chevrolet  Bolt EUV Premier

2022 Chevrolet Bolt EUV Premier

247 mi
265 mi
#36 2022 Ford  F-150 Lightning Pro

2022 Ford F-150 Lightning Pro

230 mi
265 mi
#37 2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E Std. Range

2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E Std. Range

230 mi
264 mi
#38 2020 Tesla Model Y Performance

2020 Tesla Model Y Performance

291 mi
263 mi
#39 2022 Jaguar I-Pace EV400 HSE

2022 Jaguar I-Pace EV400 HSE

234 mi
262 mi
#40 2022 Porsche Taycan GTS

2022 Porsche Taycan GTS

246 mi
259 mi
#41 2018 Tesla Model 3 Performance

2018 Tesla Model 3 Performance

310 mi
256 mi
#42 2022 Volvo C40 Recharge

2022 Volvo C40 Recharge

226 mi
252 mi
#43 2022 Porsche Taycan 4S Cross Turismo (21-in wheels)

2022 Porsche Taycan 4S Cross Turismo (21-in wheels)

215 mi
250 mi
#44 2022 Audi e-tron

2022 Audi e-tron

222 mi
248 mi
#45 2021 Volvo XC40 Recharge

2021 Volvo XC40 Recharge

208 mi
240 mi
#46 2021 Audi e-tron Sportback

2021 Audi e-tron Sportback

218 mi
238 mi
#47 2022 Nissan Leaf Plus SL

2022 Nissan Leaf Plus SL

215 mi
237 mi
#48 2020 Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus

2020 Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus

250 mi
232 mi
#49 2023 Toyota bZ4X Limited FWD

2023 Toyota bZ4X Limited FWD

242 mi
227 mi
#50 2020 Hyundai Ioniq Electric

2020 Hyundai Ioniq Electric

170 mi
202 mi
#51 2020 MINI Cooper SE

2020 MINI Cooper SE

110 mi
150 mi
#52 2022 Mazda MX-30

2022 Mazda MX-30

100 mi
114 mi

Updated November 28, 2022

The Chart: Edmunds' EV Testing Data vs. EPA Estimates

This chart shows an electric vehicle's official EPA range and energy consumption compared to the range and consumption results from Edmunds' own testing, which is designed to be a real-world complement to the EPA's laboratory-based process. If you see arrows in a column heading, click it to change the sort order.

EdmundsRangeConsumptionConditions
Vehicle
2022 Lucid Air Dream Range520 miles505 miles*
(-2.9%)
27 kWh/ 100 mi28.3 kWh/ 100 mi
(-4.8%)
67°
2022 Mercedes-Benz EQS 450+350 miles422 miles*
(+20.6%)
35 kWh/ 100 mi29.5 kWh/ 100 mi
(+15.7%)
67°
2022 Mercedes-Benz EQS 580340 miles381 miles*
(+12.1%)
36 kWh/ 100 mi33 kWh/ 100 mi
(+8.3%)
62°
2022 BMW iX xDrive50315 miles377 miles
(+19.7%)
39 kWh/ 100 mi32.0 kWh/ 100 mi
(+18.0%)
73°
2022 Ford F-150 Lightning Lariat320 miles345 miles*
(+7.8%)
48 kWh/ 100 mi43.7 kWh/ 100 mi
(+9%)
72°
2021 Tesla Model 3 Long Range353 miles345 miles*
(-2.3%)
25 kWh/ 100 mi25.9 kWh/ 100 mi
(-3.6%)
61°
2021 Tesla Model S Plaid348 miles345 miles*
(-0.9%)
33 kWh/ 100 mi32.1 kWh/ 100 mi
(+2.7%)
73°
2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E California Route 1305 miles344 miles
(+12.8%)
33 kWh/ 100 mi28.9 kWh/ 100 mi
(+12.4%)
58°
2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E Premium Ext Range RWD300 miles341 miles
(+13.7%)
35 kWh/ 100 mi29.2 kWh/ 100 mi
(+16.6%)
63°
2022 Ford F-150 Lightning Platinum Extended Range300 miles341 miles
(+10.7%)
51 kWh/ 100 mi45.4 kWh/ 100 mi
(+11%)
81°
2022 Mercedes-Benz AMG EQS 53 4Matic277 miles332 miles
(+19.9%)
45 kWh/100 mi38.7 kWh/100 mi
()
79°
2020 Porsche Taycan 4S203 miles323 miles*
(+59.3%)
49 kWh/ 100 mi32.3 kWh/ 100 mi
(+34.1%)
73°
2022 Kia EV6 Wind RWD310 miles323 miles*
(+4.2%)
29 kWh/ 100 mi26 kWh/ 100 mi
(+10.3%)
67°
2020 Tesla Model S Performance326 miles318 miles*
(-2.5%)
35 kWh/ 100 mi32.6 kWh/ 100 mi
(+6.9%)
60°
2021 Tesla Model Y Long Range326 miles317 miles*
(-2.8%)
27 kWh/ 100 mi26.2 kWh/ 100 mi
(+3.0%)
62°
2022 Rivian R1T Launch Edition314 miles317 miles*
(+1.0%)
48 kWh/ 100 mi46.9 kWh/ 100 mi
(+2.3%)
53°
2022 Hyundai Kona Electric258 miles308 miles
(+21.9%)
28 kWh/ 100 mi23 kWh/ 100 mi
(+20.4%)
56°
2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E AWD Ext Range270 miles304 miles
(+12.6%)
37 kWh/ 100 mi33.1 kWh/ 100 mi
(+10.5%)
62°
2020 Tesla Model X Long Range328 miles294 miles*
(-10.4%)
35 kWh/ 100 mi35.0 kWh/ 100 mi
(0.0%)
60°
2022 Polestar 2 Long Range Single Motor270 miles289 miles*
(+7.0%)
31 kWh/ 100 mi30.1 kWh/ 100 mi
(+2.9%)
62°
2022 Polestar 2 Long Range Dual Motor249 miles288 miles*
(+15.7%)
38 kWh/ 100 mi29.3 kWh/ 100 mi
(+22.9%)
61°
2021 Volkswagen ID.4 Pro260 miles288 miles*
(+10.8%)
34 kWh/ 100 mi29.3 kWh/ 100 mi
(+13.9%)
65°
2021 Volkswagen ID.4 First Edition250 miles287 miles*
(+14.8%)
35 kWh/ 100 mi28.8 kWh/ 100 mi
(+17.7%)
63°
2022 Porsche Taycan (20-in wheels)225 miles286 miles
(+27.1%)
45 kWh/ 100 mi35 kWh/ 100 mi
(+22.2%)
68°
2020 Kia Niro EV239 miles285 miles
(+19.2%)
30 kWh/ 100 mi25.3 kWh/ 100 mi
(+15.7%)
67°
2022 Audi RS e-tron GT232 miles285 miles
(+22.8%)
42 kWh/ 100 mi36.4 kWh/ 100 mi
(+13.3%)
77°
2022 Kia EV6 GT-Line dual motor274 miles283 miles*
(+3.3%)
32 kWh/ 100 mi29.5 kWh/ 100 mi
(+7.8%)
66°
2022 Chevrolet Bolt259 miles278 miles
(+7.3%)
28 kWh/ 100 mi25.7 kWh/ 100 mi
(+8.2%)
71°
2023 Genesis GV60 Performance235 miles274 miles
(+16.6%)
37 kWh/ 100 mi30.9 kWh/ 100 mi
(+16.5%)
76°
2022 Audi e-tron GT238 miles273 miles*
(+14.7%)
41 kWh/ 100 mi37.2 kWh/ 100 mi
(+9.3%)
70°
2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E GT Performance260 miles272 miles
(+4.6%)
41 kWh/ 100 mi37.4 kWh/ 100 mi
(+8.8%)
68°
2021 Volkswagen ID.4 Pro S dual motor240 miles272 miles*
(+13.3%)
36 kWh/ 100 mi31.0 kWh/ 100 mi
(+13.9%)
65°
2022 Hyundai Ioniq 5 Limited dual motor256 miles270 miles
(+5.5%)
34 kWh/ 100 mi30.9 kWh/ 100 mi
(+9.1%)
55°
2022 BMW i4 M50227 miles268 miles
(+18.1%)
42 kWh/ 100 mi34.1 kWh/ 100 mi
(+18.8%)
75°
2022 Chevrolet Bolt EUV Premier247 miles265 miles
(+7.3%)
29 kWh/100 mi26.7 kWh/100 mi
(+7.9%)
78°
2022 Ford F-150 Lightning Pro230 miles265 miles*
(+15.2%)
49 kWh/100 mi41.3 kWh/100 mi
(41.3 kWh/100 mi)
72°
2021 Ford Mustang Mach-E Std. Range230 miles264 miles
(+14.8%)
34 kWh/ 100 mi29.2 kWh/ 100 mi
(+14.1%)
62°
2020 Tesla Model Y Performance291 miles263 miles*
(-9.6%)
30 kWh/ 100 mi29.6 kWh/ 100 mi
(+1.3%)
65°
2022 Jaguar I-Pace EV400 HSE234 miles262 miles
(+12.0%)
44 kWh/100 mi36.3 kWh/100 mi
(+17.5%)
67°
2022 Porsche Taycan GTS246 miles259 miles
(+5.3%)
41 kWh/100 mi38.2 kWh/100 mi
(+6.8%)
77°
2018 Tesla Model 3 Performance310 miles256 miles*
(-17.4%)
29 kWh/ 100 mi30.1 kWh/ 100 mi
(-3.8%)
61°
2022 Volvo C40 Recharge226 miles252 miles
(11.50%)
39 kWh/100 mi35.1 kWh/100 mi
(+10%)
74°
2022 Porsche Taycan 4S Cross Turismo (21-in wheels)215 miles250 miles*
(+16.3%)
45 kWh/ 100 mi39.2 kWh/ 100 miles
(+12.9%)
66°
2022 Audi e-tron222 miles248 miles*
(+11.7%)
43 kWh/ 100 mi38.4 kWh/ 100 miles
(+10.7%)
67°
2021 Volvo XC40 Recharge208 miles240 miles*
(+15.4%)
43 kWh/ 100 mi35.4 kWh/ 100 miles
(+17.7%)
70°
2021 Audi e-tron Sportback218 miles238 miles*
(+9.2%)
44 kWh/ 100 mi38.2 kWh/ 100 mi
(+13.2%)
71°
2022 Nissan Leaf Plus SL215 miles237 miles
(+10.2%)
32 kWh/ 100 mi27.1 kWh/ 100 mi
(+15.3%)
67°
2020 Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus250 miles232 miles*
(-7.2%)
24 kWh/ 100 mi23.0 kWh/ 100 mi
(+4.2%)
67°
2023 Toyota bZ4X Limited FWD242 miles227 miles
(-6.2%)
26 kWh/ 100 mi28.5 kWh/ 100 mi
(-9.6%)
65°
2020 Hyundai Ioniq Electric170 miles202 miles
(+18.9%)
25 kWh/ 100 mi20.8 kWh/ 100 mi
(+16.8%)
70°
2020 MINI Cooper SE110 miles150 miles
(+36.5%)
31 kWh/ 100 mi21.8 kWh/ 100 mi
(+29.7%)
62°
2022 Mazda MX-30100 miles114 miles
(+14.0%)
37 kWh/ 100 mi29.6 kWh/ 100 mi
(+20.0%)
55°

*Range tested at maximum battery charge to align with EPA estimates. Manufacturer recommends a lower battery charge level for daily use to preserve battery life.

What is EPA estimated range?

In short, this is the approximate number of miles that a vehicle can travel in combined city and highway driving (using a mix of 55% highway and 45% city driving) before needing to be recharged, according to the EPA's testing methodology.

But what exactly is that methodology? First, the vehicle is fully charged and parked overnight. The following day, the vehicle is driven on a dynamometer — it's like a treadmill for cars — over successive simulated city and highway routes until the battery is depleted. The total distance traveled is then multiplied by a correction factor that the EPA has determined will more accurately reflect what drivers can expect to achieve in the real world. The value of this correction factor, which is always less than 1 but greater than 0, is determined by the number of drive cycles a vehicle is tested on.

In short, there's certainly a method to the EPA's madness, but the process is laboratory-based, and EV owners don't drive their cars in a lab. So what's the real-world version? That's where Edmunds' EV range testing comes in.

What is EPA estimated consumption?

Akin to miles per gallon (mpg) for fuel-burning vehicles, this metric represents electric vehicles' energy consumption in kilowatt-hours per hundred miles (kWh/100 miles). A battery stores energy in kilowatt-hours much like a gas tank stores fuel in gallons. This value tells you how much energy in kilowatt-hours a vehicle would use to travel 100 miles.

Unlike mpg, however, where a larger number is better (for example, a vehicle that gets 30 mpg is better than one that gets 20 mpg), a smaller number is better in kWh/100 miles because you are using less battery energy per mile. So a vehicle that uses 20 kWh/100 miles is more efficient than one that uses 30 kWh/100 miles.

In EPA testing, once a vehicle battery is depleted, it is recharged using the manufacturer-supplied charger for that vehicle. The energy consumption is then determined mathematically from the recharging energy, the energy-discharge data from the vehicle, and the distance traveled for each cycle. The recharge energy includes any charging losses due to inefficiencies in the manufacturer’s charger.

What is Edmunds tested range?

Edmunds begins with full battery charge and drives an electric vehicle on a mix of city and highway roads (approximately 60% city, 40% highway) until the battery is almost entirely empty. (We target 10 miles of remaining range for safety.) The miles traveled and the indicated remaining range are added together for the Edmunds total tested range figure. We prefer to use a higher percentage of city road driving because we believe it's more representative of typical EV use.

What is Edmunds tested consumption?

After a vehicle completes its road loop and the battery is nearly empty, it's charged back to full capacity. The kilowatt-hours used from plug-in to a full charge are tracked and then we calculate the consumption based on the miles traveled (less the remaining range). This process takes into account charging losses in the Edmunds tested consumption number.

What is Range % difference EPA vs. Edmunds?

This figure is the difference between the EPA's range estimate and the range tested in Edmunds' real-world testing. A positive percentage (in green) means Edmunds exceeded the range estimated by the EPA, while a negative percentage (in red) means a vehicle fell short of its EPA range during our test.

What is Consumption % difference EPA vs. Edmunds?

This figure is the difference between the EPA's energy consumption estimate and the energy consumption Edmunds calculated based on our real-world testing. A positive percentage (in green) means a vehicle used that much less energy than its EPA estimate and was more efficient in Edmunds' testing. A negative percentage (in red) means a vehicle used that much more energy than its EPA estimate and was less efficient in Edmunds' testing. Remember, a lower kWh/100 miles number is better if you're talking EVs.

What is ambient temperature and why does it matter?

Ambient temperature — how cold or hot it is outside — matters a whole lot when it comes to electric vehicle range, so we list the daily average temperature on the day of testing. California, and more specifically Los Angeles, has one of the more temperate climates in the world, which helps keep our testing conditions relatively consistent throughout the year. But since we can't control the weather, we thought we'd at least report it.

How does Edmunds conduct its testing?

The roads

Edmunds drives on specific road routes that cover both highway and city driving around the greater Los Angeles area. We aim for a mix of 60% city driving and 40% highway, assuming that most electric vehicle owners will likely spend more time in stop-and-go traffic than they will on the open highway. Since no electric vehicle has exactly the same range, the route length is adapted to suit each vehicle.

The methodology

In EPA tests, a vehicle is run in the default settings at startup. If there are more efficient drive modes available, or if you can increase the level of regenerative braking, but the vehicle doesn't default to these settings, they won't be utilized. Edmunds' standard practice is to use the most efficient drive mode as long as it doesn't affect safety or practical comfort levels, such as deactivating the climate control system or significantly reducing power for accelerating or maintaining appropriate highway speeds.

We run with windows up and the climate control set to auto at 72 degrees, and we maximize regenerative braking during stops. We follow the posted speed limits and keep within 5 mph of them, traffic and conditions permitting.

Which number is more accurate, EPA or Edmunds?

The short answer is neither. So many factors contribute to how far an electric vehicle will travel on a single charge that to come up with a single figure for every situation is impossible. The EPA's testing is highly controlled and standardized, but as we've found in our testing, the real-world correlation can vary dramatically depending on the vehicle.

Because Edmunds' testing uses a more conservative driving style and puts greater emphasis on city driving over highway driving (compared to the EPA's mix), our figures will often be on the higher end for range, which usually equates to better efficiency. But that's not always the case. Overall, our figures are intended to provide EV owners and potential customers with an additional data point so that they can make more informed decisions.

To date, every Tesla vehicle we've run on our real-world test route has failed to hit its EPA range estimate within the testing parameters described above, whereas most non-Tesla vehicles have surpassed their EPA estimates. Please refer to the chart above for our full test results.