Skip to main content
Skip to Filters
32 listings
  • Price Drop
    144,193 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    CarsNowUSA (35 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Monroe, MI / 35 miles away from Detroit, MI

    FINANCE CREDIT, TRADES, WARRANTY. WE SHIP NATIONWIDE CARSNOWUSA.COM Fully serviced, and ready for its new home. Trade-ins Welcome, many financing opti...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (20 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA2EB4CA032612
    Stock: 1613
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 10-02-2023

  • $12,550
    fair price
    $616 below market
    111,338 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Driveway (28 mi away)
    Home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Waterford, MI / 28 miles away from Detroit, MI

    High Demand,Rare Find,Bluetooth,Brake Assist,Heated Seats,Sunroof / Moonroof,4-Wheel Disc Brakes,7-Speed A/T,A/C,ABS,Adjustable Steering Wheel,All Whe...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5HBXDA134754
    Stock: DA134754P
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • New Listing
    $11,186
    fair price
    $911 below market
    144,950 miles
    6cyl Automatic
    Driveway (19 mi away)
    Home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Farmington Hills, MI / 19 miles away from Detroit, MI

    High Demand,Rare Find,Bluetooth,Brake Assist,Heated Seats,Navigation System,Premium Sound,Sunroof / Moonroof,Tow Hitch,4-Wheel Disc Brakes,7-Speed A/T...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary Unavailable.

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5HB0EA287029
    Stock: EA287029P
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • Price Drop
    $5,999
    great price
    $2,652 below market
    136,239 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Serra Chevrolet (16 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Bluetooth
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    • Power Driver Seat
    • Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Close

    Located in Southfield, MI / 16 miles away from Detroit, MI

    ML 350 4MATIC , 4D Sport Utility, 3.5L V6 DOHC 24V, 7-Speed Automatic Electronic, 4MATIC , Black w/Full Leather Seat Trim. Priced below KBB Fair Purch...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    17 Combined MPG (15 City/20 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGBB8GB9AA548370
    Stock: 240267B
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 03-25-2024

  • Price Drop
    115,030 miles
    3 Accidents, 4 Owners, Personal use only
    4cyl Automatic
    Driveway (In-stock online)
    Home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Bend, OR / 1,909 miles away from Detroit, MI

    Bluetooth,Brake Assist,Heated Seats,Keyless Start,Sunroof / Moonroof,Tow Hitch,Turbo/Supercharged,4 Cylinder Engine,4-Wheel Disc Brakes,7-Speed A/T,A/...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    25 Combined MPG (22 City/29 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA0EB2FA505304
    Stock: FA505304H
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • $5,000
    great price
    $3,326 below market
    151,424 miles
    No accidents, 7 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automatic
    H&N Auto Sales (16 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    • Power Driver Seat
    • Tire Pressure Warnin...
    • Multi-Zone Climate C...
    Close

    Located in Wayne, MI / 16 miles away from Detroit, MI

    **2008 MERCEDES BENZ ML350** Stop by today and check out this super clean and fully loaded 2008 MERCEDES BENZ ML350! This vehicle is equipped with: -6...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    17 Combined MPG (15 City/20 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGBB86E28A387009
    Stock: 1859
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 10-16-2022

  • $12,937
    great price
    $1,731 below market
    116,073 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Randy Shirk's Northpointe Auto Sales (47 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Toledo, OH / 47 miles away from Detroit, MI

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5HB3FA531189
    Stock: 13694
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 12-24-2023

  • 32,828 miles
    Insurance loss reported, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    ZT Motors (8 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Detroit, MI / 8 miles away from Detroit, MI

    ***REBUILT TITLE*** - CALL/TEXT (3**) 8**-7*** - ZT Motors - - FINE RIDES, BEST PRICES, EZ FINANCING! For FAST Approvals Fill Out Our Online Credit Ap...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Title issue reported

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5HB2FA592324
    Stock: 23277
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 12-17-2023

  • $6,450
    good price
    $1,146 below market
    146,000 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Legacy Motors 3 (8 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Power Driver Seat
    • Tire Pressure Warnin...
    • Multi-Zone Climate C...
    • Auto Climate Control
    Close

    Located in Detroit, MI / 8 miles away from Detroit, MI

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    17 Combined MPG (15 City/20 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGBB86E87A219809
    Stock: 219809
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-10-2024

  • New Listing
    $23,590
    fair price
    $242 below market
    38,573 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    • Keyless Entry/Start
    Close

    Located in Phoenix, AZ / 1,681 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5JB3FA547130
    Stock: 2002902428
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-14-2024

  • New Listing
    $22,590
    fair price
    $643 below market
    38,101 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    • Keyless Entry/Start
    Close

    Located in Tampa, FL / 994 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5JB5FA563412
    Stock: 2002885353
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-30-2024

  • 74,337 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Memphis, TN / 619 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    23 Combined MPG (20 City/28 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA2EBXEA275957
    Stock: 2002844873
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-11-2024

  • $9,848
    good price
    $1,123 below market
    176,022 miles
    1 Accident, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Glassman Auto Group (15 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Southfield, MI / 15 miles away from Detroit, MI

    Priced below KBB Fair Purchase Price! AUCTION SPECIAL!! This vehicle is soon being sent to auction but is being sold at auction pricing b, This is a f...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5HB4FA459600
    Stock: FA459600
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-23-2024

  • New Listing
    36,344 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Phoenix, AZ / 1,681 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5JB4EA295774
    Stock: 2002896537
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-13-2024

  • $18,990
    fair price
    $49 below market
    76,157 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Sacramento, CA / 2,019 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5HB5FA486000
    Stock: 2002849220
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-23-2024

  • 63,299 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    • Keyless Entry/Start
    Close

    Located in Dallas, TX / 996 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5JB2FA531887
    Stock: 2002902160
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-07-2024

  • Price Drop
    57,969 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Richmond, VA / 433 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5HB6FA488550
    Stock: 2002842408
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-09-2024

  • Price Drop
    58,053 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Phoenix, AZ / 1,681 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5HB5CA055751
    Stock: 2002889501
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-28-2024

  • 131,345 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Driveway (In-stock online)
    Home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Auto Climate Control
    • Alarm
    • Rear Bench Seats
    • Stability Control
    Close

    Located in Urbandale, IA / 549 miles away from Detroit, MI

    CarFax No Accidents Reported,CarFax 1-Owner,Low Mileage,Rare Find,Brake Assist,Heated Seats,4-Wheel Disc Brakes,5-Speed A/T,A/C,ABS,Adjustable Steerin...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    15 Combined MPG (14 City/17 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGAB54E63A385592
    Stock: 3A385592VT
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • New Listing
    68,416 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Phoenix, AZ / 1,681 miles away from Detroit, MI

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGDA5JB8EA338982
    Stock: 2002906930
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-11-2024

  • New Listing
    115,659 miles
    No accidents, 5 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Driveway (In-stock online)
    Home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Klamath Falls, OR / 1,957 miles away from Detroit, MI

    CarFax No Accidents Reported,Rare Find,Brake Assist,Sunroof / Moonroof,Turbo/Supercharged,4-Wheel Disc Brakes,7-Speed A/T,A/C,ABS,Adjustable Steering ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/25 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 4JGBB2FB4BA704296
    Stock: BA704296T
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

Showing 1 - 21 out of 32 listings

Consumer Reviews for the Mercedes-Benz M-Class

Read recent reviews for the Mercedes-Benz M-Class
Overall Consumer Rating
4.2 out of 5 stars1,308 Reviews
Write a vehicle reviewSee all 1308 reviews
  • 5 star
    (56%)
  • 4 star
    (24%)
  • 3 star
    (12%)
  • 2 star
    (6%)
  • 1 star
    (2%)
5 out of 5 stars

Gorgeous & Practical

AW, 08/14/2019
2015 Mercedes-Benz M-Class
Looking for a stylish family car, we bought a loaded CPO 2015 ML350 with 43k miles in showroom-perfect condition, at half the original price. Absolutely gorgeous inside out, everything looks super rich, design is classy yet modern. MB-Tex seats with texturing, perforation and contrasting stitching look and feel great, love the polished wood panels. Sitting high up in the spacious … cabin, it feels exceptional even among luxury cars. RWD-based chassis results in handsome profile with short front overhang, and your right leg’s proximity to transmission tunnel is a reminder of the premium architecture. Tall and spacious inside yet sleek on the outside, always the best-looking car in the parking lot. Great driving position with big windows. Spring-loaded shifter on steering column is super easy to use, and articulated wiper arm that covers almost the entire windshield is a uniquely Benz advantage. Engine is smooth and strong, 7-speed auto has just enough gears for good performance without feeling like a CVT. Steering is very light without much feedback, but offers good drivability once you learn to hold it gently. Ride is creamy smooth yet suitably firm, has a quality feel that makes it fun to drive during ordinary use (not recommended for attacking canyon roads). Rear bench is upright and high off the floor, great for two passengers and quite good for three. This is much comfier than sedans, and while it cannot compete with the bonkers room of minivans, we are happy to trade some space for style. Combined with the large trunk and high viewpoint that allows you to see far ahead, the ML is perfect for family road-trips, gobbling up mile after mile in complete comfort. No major issues over 15k miles, and although you are stuck with premium gas and high maintenance cost, you get exclusivity in return. One year into the ownership, we love it more and more every day!!
Report abuse
Select Buying Experience
Filters
Skip to Results

Location

Search radius50 miles
Search radius

Make & Model

make

model

Year

to
Year

Condition

Price & Payment

32 cars
|
$15,947 avg. price
$
to
$
Price

Price Rating

Edmunds' ratings are backed by 15+ years of pricing research done by our data scientistsHow are ratings determined?We analyze millions of data points to generate our ratings. We look at vehicle configuration, options, history, nearby transactions, market pricing and more — the ratings are up-to-date and relevant to your search area.

Trim

Mileage

to
Mileage

Vehicle History

Engine & Drivetrain

Transmission

Engine Type

Drivetrain

Cylinders

Exterior Color

Interior Color

Total Seating

Features

Comfort & Convenience

Safety

Engine & Exterior

Entertainment

Options & Packages

MPG

to
MPG

Vehicle Listing Details


* Delivery of any kind does not apply to Alaska and Hawaii. Contact the dealer for delivery details, restrictions and costs.