Skip to main content

Used 2014 Porsche 911 for Sale

Showing Nationwide results. Enter your
for local results.
2,420 listings
  • $159,992
    Great priceGreat price
    $21,060 Below Market
    13,262 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Beverly Hills Porsche (Los Angeles, CA)
    Upgraded Headlights
    Power Driver Seat
    Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Multi-Zone Climate C...
    Auto Climate Control
    +more

    Located in Los Angeles, CA / 2,280 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Beverly Hills Porsche is an authorized factory dealership of Porsche cars, SUVs, accessories, parts and merchandise. Centrally located to all of Los A...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    17 Combined MPG (15 City/20 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AC2A93ES183524
    Stock: P16949A
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 03-27-2022

  • Price Drop
    $77,995
    Great priceGreat price
    $13,208 Below Market
    41,500 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automated Manual
    United Imports of San Jose (San Jose, CA)
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    Upgraded Headlights
    +more

    Located in San Jose, CA / 2,395 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    FRONT & REAR PARKASSIST, PASM SPORTS SUSPENSION (-20MM) W/PDCC, PASM SPORTS SUSPENSION (-20MM), ELECTRIC FOLDING EXTERIOR MIRRORS, POWER STEERING PLUS...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AB2A92ES120823
    Stock: ES120823P
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-09-2022

  • 39,997 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Crave Luxury Auto (Woodlands, TX)
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    +more

    Located in Woodlands, TX / 1,189 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    2014 Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet Showing only 39,997 miles Excellent condition, Clean Carfax, Non smoker. Original MSRP: $177,915.00 Well equipped in ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0CD2A97ES173262
    Stock: P173262
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 06-22-2019

  • Price Drop
    $79,774
    Great priceGreat price
    $9,548 Below Market
    30,465 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Manual
    Napleton's Palm Beach Acura (West Palm Beach, FL)
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Upgraded Headlights
    Power Driver Seat
    +more

    Located in West Palm Beach, FL / 865 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Recent Arrival! 2014 Porsche 911 2D Cabriolet Red Carrera S 3.8L 6-Cylinder DOHC 7-Speed Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK) RWDDue to the limited supply of ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0CB2A91ES154826
    Stock: POH154826
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-18-2022

  • $114,750
    Great priceGreat price
    27,357 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Crave Luxury Auto (Woodlands, TX)
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    +more

    Located in Woodlands, TX / 1,189 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Crave Luxury presents the 2014 Porsche 911 Turbo S in Metallic White with Black and Carrera Red leather interior. The all wheel drive, carbon ceramic ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AD2A95ES166950
    Stock: P166950
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 11-21-2019

  • $138,991
    Great priceGreat price
    $14,269 Below Market
    20,916 miles
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Driveway (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    +more

    Located in Seaside, CA / 2,400 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    CarFax No Accidents Reported,Low Mileage,Bluetooth,Brake Assist,Leather Seats,Navigation System,Premium Sound,Turbo/Supercharged,Flat 6 Cylinder Engin...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary Unavailable.

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AD2A98ES167428
    Stock: ES167428PC1
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • $129,900
    Good priceGood price
    19,019 miles
    No accidents, 5 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Park Place Porsche Dallas (Dallas, TX)
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    +more

    Located in Dallas, TX / 1,161 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Odometer is 13327 miles below market average! 2014 Porsche 911 Turbo Black AWD 3.8L 6-Cylinder BiTurbo Clean CARFAX. 20' 911 Turbo S Wheels, AWD, Burm...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AD2A92ES166842
    Stock: EES166842
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-20-2022

  • $85,995
    Good priceGood price
    $4,607 Below Market
    21,436 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Manual
    The Porsche Exchange (Highland Park, IL)
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Upgraded Headlights
    Power Driver Seat
    +more

    Located in Highland Park, IL / 584 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    MAJOR SERVICE COMPLETE!! GORGEOUS 2014 Porsche 911 in EXCELLENT Condition! Covered under Porsche Certified Preowned Warranty for 2 years and UNLIMITED...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AA2A9XES106610
    Stock: P220193A
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 02-26-2022

  • $147,994
    Good priceGood price
    $4,424 Below Market
    19,919 miles
    No accidents, 5 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Land Rover Marin (Corte Madera, CA)
    Upgraded Headlights
    Power Driver Seat
    Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Multi-Zone Climate C...
    Auto Climate Control
    +more

    Located in Corte Madera, CA / 2,412 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    2014 Porsche 911 GT3(468hp Flat 6 Cylinder)...PDK Transmission...Racing Yellow...Black Suede/Leather Interior...CLEAR BRA INSTALLED....20' GT3 Silver ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    17 Combined MPG (15 City/20 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AC2A98ES183499
    Stock: P8516
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 03-19-2022

  • $92,990
    Good priceGood price
    $7,799 Below Market
    13,500 miles
    6cyl Manual
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Upgraded Headlights
    +more

    Located in Chicago, IL / 609 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    At Carvana, we want to help everyone Live Feelessly�. That's why we never charge last-minute, bogus fees. We believe in treating you better--we think ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary Unavailable.

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0CB2A93ES155864
    Stock: 2001801356
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-09-2022

  • $133,990
    Good priceGood price
    $7,183 Below Market
    34,814 miles
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    D&C Motor Company (Portland, OR)
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    +more

    Located in Portland, OR / 2,319 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Simply Drive Home. Porsche Dynamic Chassis Control (PDCC), Porsche Ceramic Composite Brakes (PCCB), ParkAssist (Front and Rear) incl. Reversing Camera...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AD2A91ES167500
    Stock: TR167500
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-15-2022

  • $135,500
    Good priceGood price
    $10,461 Below Market
    27,717 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche Fremont (Fremont, CA)
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Fremont, CA / 2,392 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    *Porsche Fremont does not reserve or hold advertised vehicles, all are subject to prior sale on a first come first serve basis. Customer must take del...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AD2A94ES166471
    Stock: P11762
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 05-11-2022

  • $86,488
    Fair priceFair price
    $6,411 Below Market
    28,980 miles
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    M & S Auto (Sacramento, CA)
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    Upgraded Headlights
    +more

    Located in Sacramento, CA / 2,342 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    The epitome of driving perfection, our 2014 Porsche 911 Carrera S Coupe in White is an iconic world-class sports car that commands absolute attention....

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AB2A99ES120625
    Stock: A34366
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-27-2022

  • $92,468
    Good priceGood price
    $7,435 Below Market
    22,875 miles
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Hendrick Porsche (Charlotte, NC)
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Upgraded Headlights
    +more

    Located in Charlotte, NC / 322 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Excellent Condition, Porsche Approved Certified, LOW MILES - 22,309! Navigation, Heated Leather Seats, LUXOR BEIGE, PARTIAL LEATHER SEAT TRI... Active...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AB2A99ES120091
    Stock: PS04786
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 06-09-2022

  • $83,988
    Good priceGood price
    $3,685 Below Market
    34,646 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Manual
    Marin Mazda (San Rafael, CA)
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Upgraded Headlights
    Power Driver Seat
    +more

    Located in San Rafael, CA / 2,410 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    LOW MILES! AMAZING PORSHCE 911 CARRERA S! This great car comes equipped with Bose Audio Package, Premium Package W/ Sport Seats, Sports Exhaust System...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0CB2A93ES155556
    Stock: 16146
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 06-01-2022

  • $128,419
    Good priceGood price
    $9,623 Below Market
    47,102 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Jim Butler Fiat (Crestwood, MO)
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    +more

    Located in Crestwood, MO / 695 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Clean CARFAX. CARFAX One-Owner.2014 Porsche 911 Turbo S Basalt Black Metallic 7-Speed Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK) AWD 3.8L 6-Cylinder BiTurbo Single ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AD2A91ES167836
    Stock: P1995
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • 63,173 miles
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche of West Houston (Houston, TX)
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Houston, TX / 1,211 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    *PORSCHE CERTIFIED PRE-OWNED 2014 PORSCHE 911 991.1 CARRERA 4S COUPE! THESE ARE REALLY HARD TO FIND AND WE HAVE A NICE ONE! PREMIUM PACKAGE WITH SPORT...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/26 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AB2A95ES121657
    Stock: SES121657
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 05-12-2022

  • $76,775
    Fair priceFair price
    $115 Below Market
    44,049 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Kendall BMW Of Bend (Bend, OR)
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Sunroof/Moonroof
    Upgraded Headlights
    +more

    Located in Bend, OR / 2,265 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Recent trade-in for a new 911! This well-cared for 911 Coupe is ready for fun! Great options, including glass moonroof, heated and cooled front seats,...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AA2A95ES106353
    Stock: BP2123A
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-30-2022

  • $74,988
    Good priceGood price
    $2,802 Below Market
    25,276 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Manual
    Irvine Alfa Romeo (Irvine, CA)
    Bluetooth
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    Upgraded Headlights
    Power Driver Seat
    +more

    Located in Irvine, CA / 2,252 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Red Clean CARFAX. RWD 7-Speed Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK) 20/28 City/Highway MPG Odometer is 11128 miles below market average! 3.4L H6 DI 350 hp Lo...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AA2A99ES107389
    Stock: M1894P
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 06-20-2022

  • $148,990
    Fair priceFair price
    $1,533 Above Market
    28,845 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automated Manual
    D&C Motor Company (Portland, OR)
    Upgraded Headlights
    Power Driver Seat
    Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Multi-Zone Climate C...
    Auto Climate Control
    +more

    Located in Portland, OR / 2,319 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Simply Drive Home. Black Bi-Xenon Headlights w/PDLS, Front Axle Lifting System, Navigation Module, Porsche Dynamic Light System, Sound Package Plus. C...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    17 Combined MPG (15 City/20 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0AC2A99ES183298
    Stock: P183298
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-25-2022

  • $142,000
    Fair priceFair price
    $5,299 Above Market
    14,133 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Rental vehicle
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche West Palm Beach (West Palm Beach, FL)
    AWD/4WD
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in West Palm Beach, FL / 865 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    2014 911 Turbo Cabriolet Rhodium Silver Metallic Cabriolet Roof in Red Natural Leather Interior in Carrera Red SportDesign Side Mirrors Bi-Xenon Headl...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP0CD2A96ES173589
    Stock: PC-P29481
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 04-21-2022

Previous
Next
Showing 1 - 21 out of 2,420 listings

Consumer Reviews for the Porsche 911

Read recent reviews for the Porsche 911
Overall Consumer Rating
4.3 out of 5 stars10 Reviews
Write a reviewSee all 10 reviews
  • 5
    (70%)
  • 4
    (10%)
  • 2
    (20%)
5 out of 5 stars
A Porsche Lovers Car
N. Adame,03/13/2018
Carrera 2dr Coupe (3.4L 6cyl 7M)
Driving my 911 is the highlight of my day. My first Porsche was a 1995 Porsche 993 and my 991 is every bit as fun to drive. I don't buy Porsche for comfort, tech gimmicks, nor appropriately sized cup holders, I get that from my Lexus sedan. I own a Porsche for its racing history, performance, and responsiveness. The 991 handles as superbly on a road trip at 100 mph as it does on the … streets in traffic. The acceleration for this base model is more than enough for where I live in the suburbs. I would recommend the S or Turbo if you need more speed or want to impress your friends. The "rough ride" should tell you that you're driving a true sports car, not an German sedan that goes fast in a straight line while you search the web and talk on the cell phone. Porsche enthusiast will appreciate the value in the 911, all others need not apply.
Report abuse
Select Buying Experience
Filters

Distance

Nationwide
Search radius

10mi

50mi

100mi

500mi

Make | Model | Year

Year(s)

Condition

Price and Payment

$
$
Price

RatingHow are ratings determined?We analyze millions of data points to generate our ratings. We look at vehicle configuration, options, history, nearby transactions, market pricing and more — the ratings are up-to-date and relevant to your search area.

Edmunds' ratings are backed by 15+ years of pricing research done by our data scientists

Type

Trim

Mileage

Mileage

Vehicle History

Engine and Drivetrain

Transmission


Engine Type


Drivetrain


Cylinders

Exterior Color

Interior Color

Features

Comfort & Convenience


Safety


Engine & Exterior


Entertainment

Options & Packages

MPG

MPG

Vehicle Listing Details


* Delivery of any kind does not apply to Alaska and Hawaii. Contact the dealer for delivery details, restrictions and costs.