Skip to main content
Skip to Filters
394 listings
  • Price Drop
    $39,900
    great price
    $4,610 below market
    38,871 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Ourisman Lexus of Rockville (18 mi away)
    Home delivery*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Rockville, MD / 18 miles away from Arlington, VA

    PANORAMIC MOONROOF, PREMIUM PLUS PACKAGE, HEATED STEERING WHEEL, APPLE CAR PLAY/ANDROID AUTO, NAVIGATION, HEATED AND VENTILATED SEATS, LANE ASSIST, PR...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AB2A54LLB31325
    Stock: ZB31325
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 02-23-2024

  • $62,998
    great price
    $4,612 below market
    37,398 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche Annapolis (31 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Leather Seats
    Close

    Located in Annapolis, MD / 31 miles away from Arlington, VA

    Certified. Remainder of Factory Warranty, Meticulously Detailed Inside and Out, Passed Rigorous Safety Inspection Performed by Certified Technician, I...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AF2A53LLB60027
    Stock: PP2277
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 03-22-2024

  • New Listing
    $58,995
    fair price
    $679 below market
    10,539 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Hyman Bros Infiniti of Richmond (98 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Midlothian, VA / 98 miles away from Arlington, VA

    ~ONE OWNER~ CLEAN CARFAX~ CALIFORNIA OWNED PORSCHE~

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AB2A50LLB31158
    Stock: H9209
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 01-31-2024

  • $39,998
    fair price
    $54 below market
    32,196 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    4cyl Automated Manual
    CarMax Brandywine - Now offering Express Pickup (17 mi away)
    Delivery available*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Brandywine, MD / 17 miles away from Arlington, VA

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A5XLLB10143
    Stock: 25488123
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • $39,998
    fair price
    $379 below market
    24,462 miles
    4cyl Automated Manual
    CarMax Frederick - Now offering Express Pickup (19 mi away)
    Free delivery available*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Gaithersburg, MD / 19 miles away from Arlington, VA

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary Unavailable.

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A5XLLB12409
    Stock: 24843816
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • Price Drop
    $40,000
    fair price
    $944 above market
    38,183 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Corporate fleet vehicle
    4cyl Automated Manual
    DARCARS Honda (20 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Bowie, MD / 20 miles away from Arlington, VA

    2020 Porsche Macan Base Recent Arrival! CARFAX One-Owner. Clean CARFAX.**LEATHER**, **SUNROOF**, **BACKUP CAM**, **BLUETOOTH**, **ALLOY WHEELS**, **PU...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A5XLLB11793
    Stock: P1P0204
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-12-2024

  • $55,888
    fair price
    $553 above market
    46,460 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche Owings Mills (43 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Owings Mills, MD / 43 miles away from Arlington, VA

    Superb condition Macan GTS with 20 Turbo wheels, premium package plus, full leather interior, 360 camera, blind spot monitor, BOSE sound, and more! Th...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AG2A55LLB56154
    Stock: T98249
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 03-26-2024

  • Price Drop
    23,427 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Corporate fleet vehicle
    4cyl Automated Manual
    CarMax Laurel - Now offering Express Pickup (23 mi away)
    Free delivery available*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Laurel, MD / 23 miles away from Arlington, VA

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A54LLB07674
    Stock: 25471249
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • 31,340 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    4cyl Automated Manual
    CarMax Dulles - Now offering Express Pickup and Home Delivery (21 mi away)
    Free delivery available*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Sterling, VA / 21 miles away from Arlington, VA

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A50LLB00690
    Stock: 25503609
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • 33,946 miles
    1 Accident, 1 Owner, Personal use
    4cyl Automated Manual
    Universal Auto Group (10 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Silver Spring, MD / 10 miles away from Arlington, VA

    7Our One Owner 2020 Porsche Macan AWD presented in White offers fantastic performance and tremendous versatility. Powered by a TurboCharged 2.0 Liter ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A54LLB11613
    Stock: 17051
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 12-04-2023

  • $42,170
    good price
    $3,223 below market
    23,642 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    4cyl Automated Manual
    Audi Arlington (0 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Arlington, VA / 0 miles away from Arlington, VA

    * ORIGINAL MSRP: $59,000.00* EXTERIOR: DOLOMITE SILVER METALLIC* INTERIOR: STANDARD IN BLACK* PANORAMIC ROOF SYSTEM* 19-INCH MACAN SPORT WHEELS* HEATE...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A51MLB00294
    Stock: B00294PX
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 02-29-2024

  • $46,888
    good price
    $2,477 below market
    21,986 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    4cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche Owings Mills (43 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Owings Mills, MD / 43 miles away from Arlington, VA

    2021 Porsche Macan in Dark Blue Metallic with a black and Mojave beige leather interior. The Porsche Macan is a remarkable compact SUV that boasts of ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A50MLB09410
    Stock: TP9643
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 02-21-2024

  • $45,820
    good price
    $2,981 below market
    39,752 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Ourisman Hyundai of Bowie (20 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Bowie, MD / 20 miles away from Arlington, VA

    CARFAX One-Owner. Clean CARFAX. This 2021 Sapphire Blue Metallic Porsche Macan S AWD is well equipped and includes these features and benefits: 8-Way...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AB2A52MLB32586
    Stock: G180842A
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 02-04-2024

  • $56,647
    good price
    $1,552 below market
    26,862 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche Arlington (2 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Arlington, VA / 2 miles away from Arlington, VA

    * MSRP: $74,540.00 * TOTAL OPTIONS: $11,720.00* EXTERIOR: VOLCANO GREY METALLIC* INTERIOR: STANDARD INTERIOR IN BLACK* PREMIUM PACKAGE PLUS: $7,100.00...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (18 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AB2A57MLB33460
    Stock: B33460AN
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 04-13-2024

  • $69,975
    fair price
    $15 below market
    17,231 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche Delaware (93 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Newark, DE / 93 miles away from Arlington, VA

    2021 Porsche Macan GTSVU Leather Package in Black/Garnet Red $2202Y Carrara White Metallic $7003FU Panoramic Roof System $1,6703S5 Roof Rails in High ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AG2A50MLB52627
    Stock: R2407
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 02-08-2024

  • $68,575
    fair price
    $1,328 above market
    41,887 miles
    No accidents, Personal use only
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche Delaware (93 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Newark, DE / 93 miles away from Arlington, VA

    2021 Porsche Macan GTSVF Leather Package in BlackN1 Sapphire Blue Metallic $790PF9 Premium Package Plus $7,5303FU Panoramic Roof SystemQ2J Power Seats...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/22 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AG2A55MLB51828
    Stock: R2420
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 02-22-2024

  • Price Drop
    $44,500
    fair price
    $495 below market
    25,393 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Rental vehicle
    4cyl Automated Manual
    Ourisman Hyundai of Bowie (20 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Bowie, MD / 20 miles away from Arlington, VA

    Clean CARFAX. Odometer is 1992 miles below market average! This 2021 White Porsche Macan Base AWD is well equipped and includes these features and ben...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A55MLB03442
    Stock: 668730A
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 03-08-2024

  • $42,998
    fair price
    $1,197 above market
    26,508 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use
    4cyl Automated Manual
    CarMax Potomac Mills - Now offering Express Pickup and Home Delivery (18 mi away)
    Delivery available*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Woodbridge, VA / 18 miles away from Arlington, VA

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A58MLB16542
    Stock: 25406606
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • $42,998
    fair price
    $1,536 below market
    29,994 miles
    4cyl Automated Manual
    CarMax West Broad - Now offering Express Pickup and Home Delivery (88 mi away)
    Delivery available*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Richmond, VA / 88 miles away from Arlington, VA

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary Unavailable.

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A59MLB01984
    Stock: 25427368
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • New Listing
    $37,998
    fair price
    $428 below market
    32,343 miles
    1 Accident, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    4cyl Automated Manual
    CarMax Fredericksburg - Now offering Express Pickup and Home Delivery (48 mi away)
    Delivery available*
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Fredericksburg, VA / 48 miles away from Arlington, VA

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (19 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AA2A57KLB06503
    Stock: 25653846
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • 37,108 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automated Manual
    Porsche Delaware (93 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Leather Seats
    Close

    Located in Newark, DE / 93 miles away from Arlington, VA

    2021 Porsche Macan TurboVG Leather Package in Agate Grey2T Jet Black MetallicPF0 Premium Package Plus $5,3803FU Panoramic Roof System4A4 Heated Seats ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/21 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: WP1AF2A52MLB60554
    Stock: R2414
    Certified Pre-Owned: Yes
    Listed since: 02-21-2024

Showing 1 - 21 out of 394 listings

Consumer Reviews for the Porsche Macan

Read recent reviews for the Porsche Macan
Overall Consumer Rating
4.6 out of 5 stars58 Reviews
Write a vehicle reviewSee all 58 reviews
  • 5 star
    (74%)
  • 4 star
    (17%)
  • 3 star
    (7%)
  • 2 star
    (2%)
  • 1 star
    (0%)
5 out of 5 stars

Are two more cylinders worth $10k?

Norman, 04/14/2020
2020 Porsche Macan 4dr SUV AWD (2.0L 4cyl Turbo 7AM)
I drove both the base and the S. Base is plenty quick. Porsche will eat you alive with options. I built a really nice ride with the price difference. This is one of the nicest Porsches I have owned going all the way back to a ‘59 cabriolet
Report abuse

Used 2020 Porsche Macan in Arlington, VA Values

Estimated values
2020 Porsche Macan S 4dr SUV AWD (3.0L 6cyl Turbo 7AM) with no options
ConditionTrade-InPrivate PartyDealer Retail
Outstanding$39,653$42,027$44,404
Clean$39,034$41,359$43,687
Average$38,001$40,247$42,493
Rough$36,659$38,801$40,941

The average list price of a used 2020 Porsche Macan in Arlington, Virginia is $49,330. The average mileage on a used Porsche Macan 2020 for sale in Arlington, Virginia is 30,454. Based on the average mileage of 30,454 for used 2020 Porsche Macan for sale in Arlington, VA and using an average vehicle condition rating, which means the vehicle may have a few mechanical and/or cosmetic problems and may require a considerable amount of reconditioning, we appraise the average trade-in value of a used Porsche Macan 2020 in Arlington, Virginia to be $38,001.

Select Buying Experience
Filters
Skip to Results

Location

Search radius100 miles
Search radius

Make & Model

make

model

Year

to
Year

Condition

Price & Payment

394 cars
|
$48,720 avg. price
$
to
$
Price

Price Rating

Edmunds' ratings are backed by 15+ years of pricing research done by our data scientistsHow are ratings determined?We analyze millions of data points to generate our ratings. We look at vehicle configuration, options, history, nearby transactions, market pricing and more — the ratings are up-to-date and relevant to your search area.

Trim

Mileage

to
Mileage

Vehicle History

Engine & Drivetrain

Transmission

Engine Type

Drivetrain

Cylinders

Exterior Color

Interior Color

Total Seating

Features

Comfort & Convenience

Safety

Engine & Exterior

Entertainment

Options & Packages

MPG

to
MPG

Vehicle Listing Details


* Delivery of any kind does not apply to Alaska and Hawaii. Contact the dealer for delivery details, restrictions and costs.