Skip to main content

Used 2014 Cadillac ELR for Sale

Showing Nationwide results. Enter your
for local results.
35 listings
  • $18,999
    great price
    $6,041 Below Market
    75,625 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Best Price Dealer (Hallandale, FL)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Hallandale, FL / 915 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    **BEST PRICE DEALER INC** IS PROUD TO BE ONE OF THE FEW DEALERS TO HAVE THIS KIND OF VEHICLE IN OUR INVENTORY AND YOUR GARAGE CAN BE ITS HOME. ACT FAS...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RS1E42EU601108
    Stock: 601108
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • $19,986
    great price
    85,009 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    Direct Drive
    Sewell Cadillac (Houston, TX)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Houston, TX / 1,211 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    1 of 100 ever made! - SAKS FIFTH AVE SPEC EDITION: * WHITE DIAMOND TRICOAT * ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL * LUXURY PACKAGE WHEELS, 20' ULTRA-BRIGHT MACHINE...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E49EU600498
    Stock: 5149151
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 08-16-2022

  • $29,895
    good price
    $2,063 Below Market
    12,898 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Gold Coast Cadillac (Oakhurst, NJ)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Oakhurst, NJ / 202 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    This 2014 Cadillac ELR Crystal Red Tintcoat Kona Brown With Jet Black Accents Leather is well equipped and includes, Bluetooth, Heated Seats, Navigati...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RP1E43EU600180
    Stock: A091A
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 09-20-2022

  • $25,499
    good price
    $1,522 Below Market
    59,600 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Northwest Hills Chevrolet Buick GMC (Torrington, CT)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Torrington, CT / 302 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    2014 Cadillac ELR BaseBluetooth Phone/AudioLOCALLY OWNED AND TRADEDNAVGATION/GPSAlloy wheels, Exterior Parking Camera RearHeated front seatsIntelliBea...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E43EU601677
    Stock: 22-502A
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 07-12-2022

  • $24,998
    fair price
    $174 Below Market
    66,624 miles
    1 Accident, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Lexus of Concord (Concord, CA)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Concord, CA / 2,386 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    ***BLUETOOTH WIRELESS / HANDS FREE***, ***NAVIGATION / GPS***, ***BACK UP CAMERA***, ***HEATED FRONT SEATS***, ***ONE OWNER CARFAX***, ***LUXURY PACKA...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RM1E40EU601506
    Stock: B18970
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 08-17-2022

  • $33,990
    fair price
    $1,008 Above Market
    11,196 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Atlanta, GA / 530 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E49EU601280
    Stock: 2001909546
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 07-12-2022

  • 67,155 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    Direct Drive
    Don Hewlett Chevrolet Buick (Georgetown, TX)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Georgetown, TX / 1,283 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Recent Arrival! 31/35 City/Highway MPGDon Hewlett Chevrolet, Buick Inc. Is proud to offer this good-looking 2014 Cadillac ELR . RELIABILITY IN MOTION!...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E4XEU601725
    Stock: P306624A
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 09-17-2022

  • $29,990
    fair price
    $477 Above Market
    33,624 miles
    No accidents, 6 Owners, Personal use
    Direct Drive
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Atlanta, GA / 530 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E43EU600447
    Stock: 2001827158
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 06-10-2022

  • 35,051 miles
    Frame damage reported, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    Direct Drive
    AutoNation Ford Westlake (Westlake, OH)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Westlake, OH / 286 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Cruise Control; Adaptive; Full-Speed Range Luxury Package Leather Seats Navigation System Keyless Start Bluetooth Connection Rear Spoiler Automatic Co...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Title issue reported

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: Yes

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E45EU601261
    Stock: EU601261
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 08-17-2022

  • 42,801 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Dallas, TX / 1,159 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E46EU601222
    Stock: 2001947324
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 08-09-2022

  • $25,658
    good price
    $1,295 Below Market
    60,343 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Brandon Volkswagen (Tampa, FL)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Tampa, FL / 815 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Clean CARFAX. Black Raven 2014 Cadillac ELR FWD 1-Speed Automatic Electric Drive UnitAt the new Audi Lakeland, we provide you with all the FACTS you n...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E48EU600430
    Stock: TDEU600430
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • $23,995
    fair price
    $240 Below Market
    77,458 miles
    No accidents, 5 Owners, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Kopren Motors (Rapid City, SD)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Rapid City, SD / 1,368 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    This vehicle features a high end BOSE stereo system. This small car features a hands-free Bluetooth phone system. Enjoy the heated seats in it you wil...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RM1E42EU600311
    Stock: K2968
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • New Listing
    $25,500
    fair price
    $639 Above Market
    77,076 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    BMW of Buena Park (Buena Park, CA)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Buena Park, CA / 2,260 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Cruise Control; Adaptive; Full-Speed Range Luxury Package Leather Seats Navigation System Keyless Start Bluetooth Connection Rear Spoiler Automatic Co...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E48EU601948
    Stock: EU601948
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 09-23-2022

  • 47,234 miles
    Lemon reported, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Whitmore Chevrolet (West Point, VA)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in West Point, VA / 110 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    2DR CPE

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Title issue reported

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: Yes

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E40EU602141
    Stock: 913
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • 38,871 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use
    Direct Drive
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Atlanta, GA / 530 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E49EU600663
    Stock: 2001830051
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 05-21-2022

  • 44,211 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    Volvo Cars of Ft Myers (Fort Myers, FL)
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Fort Myers, FL / 896 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Clean CARFAX. Welcome to Volvo Cars of Fort Myers, one of America's premier marketers of High-Line and Luxury automobiles. Volvo Cars of Fort Myers, F...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RL1E46EU142582
    Stock: FM6072B
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 09-10-2022

  • Price Drop
    37,752 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    Direct Drive
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Charlotte, NC / 321 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RM1E48EU602001
    Stock: 2001931089
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 07-19-2022

  • 63,140 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    Direct Drive
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Dallas, TX / 1,159 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E42EU601153
    Stock: 2001754556
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 06-28-2022

  • New Listing
    48,820 miles
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    Direct Drive
    CarMax (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Norcross, GA / 512 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Introducing the Love Your Car Guarantee from CarMax! Now you can take your time with a 24-hour test drive and a 30-day/1500-mile money back guarantee ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RS1E47EU600598
    Stock: 22914323
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • 68,663 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    Direct Drive
    CarMax (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in San Diego, CA / 2,242 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Introducing the Love Your Car Guarantee from CarMax! Now you can take your time with a 24-hour test drive and a 30-day/1500-mile money back guarantee ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RL1E46EU600153
    Stock: 22498920
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • 38,729 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    Direct Drive
    CarMax (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    Back-up camera
    Bluetooth
    Heated seats
    Navigation
    Leather Seats
    +more

    Located in Riverside, CA / 2,228 miles away from Ashburn, VA

    Introducing the Love Your Car Guarantee from CarMax! Now you can take your time with a 24-hour test drive and a 30-day/1500-mile money back guarantee ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: Yes

    Features and Specs:

    82 Combined MPG (N/A City/N/A Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1G6RR1E47EU600788
    Stock: 23019963
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

Previous
12
Next
Showing 1 - 21 out of 35 listings

Consumer Reviews for the Cadillac ELR

Read recent reviews for the Cadillac ELR
Overall Consumer Rating
5 out of 5 stars14 Reviews
Write a reviewSee all 14 reviews
  • 5
    (100%)
5 out of 5 stars
Wow - Get One If You Can Find One
BigW,11/06/2015
2dr Coupe (gas/electric hybrid DD)
I'd never bought an electric car before, so I researched the heck out of this thing before I bought it. I probably read every review and watched every video review out there. Then I went out and drove the car. Going in, I expected it to be very much a mixed bag, with some big compromises I might be able to live with given the heavily discounted price. What I found instead was an … absolutely stellar car that just didn't fit the conventional narrative and has really slipped through the cracks. Is it a modern sports car? No. But it has plenty of power, nice handling, etc. The disconnect between what some reviewers said and the car's actual performance was breathtaking. In the kind of driving we all do in the real world, it will give you absolutely nothing to complain about. It looks like it ought to be able to take on a Porsche 911 and it isn't that fast, but that is the only way in which the driving dynamics will disappoint you. Is it a eco-warrior statement car? No. No one will actually realize that you are driving something that is better for the environment than a Prius. So people who want to wear that on their sleeves will hate it because it doesn't make an eco-statement. Also, it is far too plush and luxurious to give off that "I'm sacrificing for the good of the planet" vibe. Is it a traditional luxury car? Not really. It is much more sporty and nimble than a traditional luxury car. The ride is smooth and well-composed, not floaty at all. However, the interior is all luxury car, and the levels of quiet are better than any luxury car I've ever seen. What it really is, is a car purpose-built for the real and relatively uninteresting driving we actually do in the real world. You don't need a huge V8 to putter along in commuter traffic. You don't need a bone-crushing suspension that handles well but beats you up every mile when you only see those twisty car commercial roads in car commercials. In the real world, quiet matters. In the real world, power matters but only up to a point. In the real world, handling and ride quality need to be thoughtfully balanced. In the real world, you shouldn't waste gas getting to work, even when it is cheap. The ELR does every one of those things well, all while looking absolutely amazing. Yes, the backseat is tiny. Yes, it should not have sold for $80k initially. But that is about as far as the legitimate criticisms go. With gas prices low, these things are selling for absolutely absurd prices. They are very rare, so finding one can be a challenge. But if you land one, you will end up with an amazing bargain.
Report abuse
Select Buying Experience
Filters
Location
Nationwide
Search radius

10mi

50mi

100mi

500mi

Make | Model | Year
make
model
to
Year(s)
Condition
Price & Payment
$
to
$
Price
Rating

Edmunds' ratings are backed by 15+ years of pricing research done by our data scientistsHow are ratings determined?We analyze millions of data points to generate our ratings. We look at vehicle configuration, options, history, nearby transactions, market pricing and more — the ratings are up-to-date and relevant to your search area.

Trim
Mileage
to
Mileage
Vehicle History
Engine & Drivetrain

Transmission


Drivetrain

Exterior Color
Interior Color
Features

Comfort & Convenience


Safety


Engine & Exterior


Entertainment

Options & Packages
MPG
to
MPG
Vehicle Listing Details

* Delivery of any kind does not apply to Alaska and Hawaii. Contact the dealer for delivery details, restrictions and costs.