Skip to main content
Skip to Filters
31 listings
  • 101,760 miles
    2 Accidents, 5 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Empire Motors (87 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Louisville, KY / 87 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    Empire Motors is honored to offer this 2012 Lincoln MKS with only 101K miles. Leather, sunroof, heated seats, cooled seats, navigation, back-up camera...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/25 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9FT1CG805254
    Stock: 525494
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 01-18-2024

  • $12,950
    fair price
    $625 below market
    95,000 miles
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Big Blue Autos (73 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Lexington, KY / 73 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    AWD SEDAN! LOADED! Call today and drive home in the sought after '13 Lincoln MKS well equip with Tan Leather/AWD/V6 Engine/20" Chrome Wheels/Sky-Roof/...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/25 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9FT1DG607985
    Stock: 9414
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 07-29-2023

  • 98,161 miles
    Insurance loss reported, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automatic
    St. Mary Auto Sales (98 mi away)
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    • Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Close

    Located in Hilliard, OH / 98 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    ***2013 LINCOLN MKS 3.7L V6 FWD Automatic 6-SpeedBase 4dr Sedan Push Start A/C Front, Alloy Wheels, Anti-Lock Brakes, Compact Disc /AM/FM, Driver Air ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Title issue reported

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DK8DG604107
    Stock: 612928056
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 08-17-2022

  • New Listing
    42,931 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    CarMax (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    • Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Close

    Located in Davie, FL / 932 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DK0DG615344
    Stock: 25691650
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • New Listing
    Stock photo © eVox Productions**
    $9,976
    fair price
    $310 below market
    118,121 miles
    1 Accident, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Bart's Car Store Fort Wayne (141 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Fort Wayne, IN / 141 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/26 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9EK8DG603456
    Stock: 502613C
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-12-2024

  • $10,995
    fair price
    $262 above market
    136,435 miles
    2 Accidents, 3 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automatic
    Premium Motor Sales (89 mi away)
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    • Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Close

    Located in Louisville, KY / 89 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DK2DG609366
    Stock: 609366
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 12-20-2023

  • $14,998
    fair price
    $1,430 above market
    80,362 miles
    2 Accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    CarMax (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    • Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Close

    Located in Gainesville, FL / 662 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/27 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DKXDG608675
    Stock: 25495418
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • Price Drop
    45,429 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Interstate Ford (40 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Keyless Entry/Start
    Close

    Located in Miamisburg, OH / 40 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/26 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9EK0FG602935
    Stock: FG602935
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 03-18-2024

  • New Listing
    $14,799
    good price
    $742 below market
    90,253 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Vorderman Volkswagen (144 mi away)
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Leather Seats
    • Sunroof/Moonroof
    Close

    Located in Fort Wayne, IN / 144 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    Recent Arrival! Clean CARFAX. **Locally Owned**, **Local Trade In**, **Non-Smoker**, 19" Premium Painted Aluminum Wheels, Active Cruise Control, Adapt...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/26 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DK5GG602643
    Stock: 34397A
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-05-2024

  • $8,995
    good price
    $548 below market
    132,415 miles
    No accidents, 2 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Hollingshead Motor Sales (167 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Cambridge, OH / 167 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (16 City/23 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9ERXCG803721
    Stock: 803721
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 03-27-2024

  • New Listing
    $15,590
    fair price
    $390 below market
    51,433 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Carvana (In-stock online)
    Free home delivery*
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Cleveland, OH / 222 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    At Carvana, we go miles beyond the extra mile. That's why we provide you with a convenient, fast, and hassle-free car buying experience that puts you ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/28 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DKXEG608418
    Stock: 2002672988
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 12-23-2023

  • Price Drop
    $14,950
    fair price
    $1,176 above market
    92,518 miles
    No accidents, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    James Collins Ford (89 mi away)
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Louisville, KY / 89 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    LOCAL ONE OWNER-LINCOLN MKS 3.7L ELITE Pkg w/DUAL PANEL MOONROOF-CONTOURED LEATHER SEATS-19in PREMIUM ALLOYS-TECHNOLOGY Pkg. Shop & Buy From Home. Ver...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/28 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DK5EG605359
    Stock: U9607
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 01-05-2024

  • 110,874 miles
    Frame damage reported, 4 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automatic
    Jersey Motors (118 mi away)
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Pataskala, OH / 118 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    WOW. Another Sharp LOW MILE great priced vehicle by Jersey Motors. This Lincoln MKS has a cream exterior in good condition with factory ALLOY WHEELS a...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Title issue reported

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: Yes

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/28 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DKXEG604532
    Stock: 3575
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 02-29-2024

  • 87,756 miles
    Frame damage reported, 2 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automatic
    Cincy Automall (16 mi away)
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Fairfield, OH / 16 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    Let us show you how easy it is to buy a quality car. Located in Fairfield Ohio, we pride ourselves on fair prices, superior service, and treating cust...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Title issue reported

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: Yes

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/28 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DK1EG610820
    Stock: C610820
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • 22,164 miles
    1 Accident, 1 Owner, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    CarMax (In-stock online)
    Delivery available*
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Navigation
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Clermont, FL / 747 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    CarMax values transparency and wants you to love your next car, not settle on it. Certain vehicles may have unrepaired safety recalls. Check nhtsa.gov...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    22 Combined MPG (19 City/28 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DK7EG607789
    Stock: 25480377
    Certified Pre-Owned: No

  • New Listing
    101,352 miles
    No accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Andy Mohr Avon Nissan (108 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Avon, IN / 108 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    Recent Arrival! Clean CARFAX.2014 Lincoln MKS EcoBoostOdometer is 10085 miles below market average!Reviews: * Spacious interior; plentiful standard fe...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/25 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9FT8EG602459
    Stock: P10486
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-12-2024

  • 74,226 miles
    1 Accident, 4 Owners, Rental vehicle
    6cyl Automatic
    Commonwealth Dodge Ram (91 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Louisville, KY / 91 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    Introducing the 2014 Lincoln MKS! Classic styling and large sedan proportions yield a distinguished yet sensible appearance. This 4 door, 5 passenger ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/26 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9EK2EG607942
    Stock: UC62610
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 11-28-2023

  • 71,021 miles
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Personal use
    6cyl Automatic
    Bobb Says Yes Powered by Twins (95 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Back-up camera
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    Close

    Located in Columbus, OH / 95 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    21 Combined MPG (18 City/26 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9EK4EG605335
    Stock: k27021
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 03-29-2024

  • $11,995
    great price
    $1,282 below market
    87,869 miles
    2 Accidents, 3 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    Wildcat Used Cars (142 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Somerset, KY / 142 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    ?? FOR SALE: 2011 LINCOLN MKS ? Mileage: 87,869 miles ? Transmission: Automatic ? Seating: Leather ? Color: Beautiful Maroon ?? This 2011 Lincoln MKS ...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: No

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/25 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9FTXBG605911
    Stock: 605911
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 04-11-2024

  • $8,980
    fair price
    $108 below market
    124,086 miles
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Corporate fleet vehicle
    6cyl Automatic
    Mark Wahlberg Chevrolet of Worthington (106 mi away)
    • AWD/4WD
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    Close

    Located in Worthington, OH / 106 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    Clean CARFAX.AWD, 16 Speakers, Air Conditioning, Alloy wheels, Auto tilt-away steering wheel, Auto-dimming Rear-View mirror, Automatic temperature con...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: No

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    20 Combined MPG (17 City/25 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9FTXBG602877
    Stock: PXA602877
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 12-28-2023

  • 1 mile
    No accidents, 4 Owners, Personal use only
    6cyl Automatic
    VA Quality Motors (89 mi away)
    • Bluetooth
    • Leather Seats
    • Upgraded Headlights
    • Power Driver Seat
    • Tire Pressure Warnin...
    Close

    Located in Louisville, KY / 89 miles away from Cincinnati, OH

    Auto Loan Approval and In-House FinancingVA QUALITY MOTORS is a ELITE Buy Here Pay Here auto dealer. We offer in-house onsite financing on all our veh...

    AutoCheck Vehicle History Summary

    Accident Free Vehicle: Yes

    Personal Use Only: Yes

    History Provider: AutoCheck

    Title Details: Clean Title

    Salvage Vehicle: No

    Frame Damage: No

    Theft History: No

    Lemon Status: No

    Free History Report: No

    Features and Specs:

    19 Combined MPG (17 City/24 Highway)

    Listing Information:

    VIN: 1LNHL9DR6BG603273
    Stock: FV3273
    Certified Pre-Owned: No
    Listed since: 12-08-2023

Showing 1 - 21 out of 31 listings

Consumer Reviews for the Lincoln MKS

Read recent reviews for the Lincoln MKS
Overall Consumer Rating
4.5 out of 5 stars52 Reviews
Write a vehicle reviewSee all 52 reviews
  • 5 star
    (69%)
  • 4 star
    (17%)
  • 3 star
    (10%)
  • 2 star
    (4%)
  • 1 star
    (0%)
4.38 out of 5 stars

New (gently used rather) MKS for Me

turbo_nut, 06/17/2011
2010 Lincoln MKS 4dr Sedan AWD w/EcoBoost (3.5L 6cyl Turbo 6A)
Brought home my MKS a couple of weeks ago, and so far have only good things to say. The car looks great, and is a pleasure to drive. From the excellent power of the twin turbo v-6 to the well appointed interior, it's just about everything I was looking for in a luxury sedan. I purchased the Tuxedo Black version, and once I had the windows tinted out, it made the car look … complete. Overall, I'm very happy with this purchase. Just a note, if you're looking for a 'sport' luxury sedan, this isn't the car for you. If you're after a well appointed cruiser that rides like a dream, then I would suggest checking out the MKS
Report abuse

Used 2012 Lincoln MKS in Cincinnati, OH Values

Estimated values
2012 Lincoln MKS 4dr Sedan AWD w/EcoBoost (3.5L 6cyl Turbo 6A) with no options
ConditionTrade-InPrivate PartyDealer Retail
Outstanding$7,558$11,076$13,089
Clean$7,202$10,506$12,359
Average$6,609$9,556$11,144
Rough$5,838$8,322$9,565

The average list price of a used 2012 Lincoln MKS in Cincinnati, Ohio is $13,256. The average mileage on a used Lincoln MKS 2012 for sale in Cincinnati, Ohio is 84,008. Based on the average mileage of 84,008 for used 2012 Lincoln MKS for sale in Cincinnati, OH and using an average vehicle condition rating, which means the vehicle may have a few mechanical and/or cosmetic problems and may require a considerable amount of reconditioning, we appraise the average trade-in value of a used Lincoln MKS 2012 in Cincinnati, Ohio to be $6,609.

Select Buying Experience
Filters
Skip to Results

Location

Search radius200 miles
Search radius

Make & Model

make

model

Year

to
Year

Condition

Price & Payment

31 cars
|
$12,994 avg. price
$
to
$
Price

Price Rating

Edmunds' ratings are backed by 15+ years of pricing research done by our data scientistsHow are ratings determined?We analyze millions of data points to generate our ratings. We look at vehicle configuration, options, history, nearby transactions, market pricing and more — the ratings are up-to-date and relevant to your search area.

Trim

Mileage

to
Mileage

Vehicle History

Engine & Drivetrain

Transmission

Engine Type

Drivetrain

Cylinders

Exterior Color

Interior Color

Total Seating

Features

Comfort & Convenience

Safety

Engine & Exterior

Entertainment

Options & Packages

MPG

to
MPG

Vehicle Listing Details


* Delivery of any kind does not apply to Alaska and Hawaii. Contact the dealer for delivery details, restrictions and costs.

** This image is a stock photo and may not reflect the model year or color of, and/or equipment offered on, the advertised vehicle.